Scientific Works Series C. Veterinary Medicine

PRINT ISSN 1222-5304, ISSN-L: 2065-1295, ISSN CD: 2343-9394,ISSN ONLINE 2067-3663
 

Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXIII, Issue 2
Written by Alina ȘTEFĂNESCU, Bogdan Alexandru VIȚĂLARU, Ion Alin BÎRȚOIU

Hemodialysis is used for the management of acute and chronic renal failure that is refractory to conventional medical therapy. For the moment, there are two types of hemodialysis: intermittent and continuous hemodialysis. Intermittent hemodialysis (IHD) is a renal replacement therapy that is defined by short and efficient hemodialysis sessions with the goal of removing endogenous or exogenous toxins from the bloodstream. IHD is indicated in cases of acute azotemia, electrolyte abnormalities or acidosis unresponsive to medical management. Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is a continuous process and, once treatment begins, therapy continues until renal function returns or the patient is transitioned to intermittent dialysis. The most common indication for CRRT is the treatment of acute kidney injury (AKI) in cases in which renal function is expected to return in the near future or for patients who are to be transitioned to IHD. Vascular access is the first and most basic requirement of successful extracorporeal renal replacement therapy (ERRT) and usually the jugular vein is used. Another vascular access consists of arteriovenous (AV) fistula or graft and it is the preferred access in patients with chronic hemodialysis. The ERRT catheter should be used only for ERRT procedures and handled only by ERRT personnel. When patients undergo IHD, their blood is removed from their bodies and run through an extracorporeal circuit. The blood is exposed to foreign material that may activate the clotting cascade. Therefore, anticoagulant therapy is often required during a dialysis treatment and special equipment is necessary for monitoring the level of anticoagulation. Complications of IHD have been widely reported and include hypotension and hypovolemia, vascular access problems and neurologic, respiratory, hematologic and gastrointestinal complications. The most significant complications of CRRT is coagulation. Despite appropriate heparin management, clotting of the CRRT circuit is inevitable.

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Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXII, Issue 2
Written by Iuliana CAZIMIR, Cristina-Ana CONSTANTINESCU, Maria Isabella RADU

The mucosa of the ruminal wall was analyzed and measured in the different areas. First involved in this study was the ventral sac mucosa, and after were the pillars’ region and the intermediary area between the reticulum and the rumen. Sheep from the white variety of the indigenous ovine breed Ţurcană (Ovis aries) were used, the pieces of interest being collected and processed using conventional histological techniques, obtaining numerous seriated slides. After they were photographed and analyzed, we have been able to identify in the structure of the mucosa a cornified stratified squamous epithelium, lamina propria, and a densification of connective fibers. All three components of the mucosa form the ruminal papillae which reach the maximum height in the ventral sac area. We tried to classify them in organized groups, according to their average shape, length and width, by the thickness of the epithelium that lines each papilla, and the proportion occupied by the connective axis. In the area of the pillars, where the ruminal papillae are missing, the mucosa has the tendency to form extremely reduced folds, based on the thickening of the epithelium, that will subsequently attract the lamina propria. In the rumino-reticular junctional area, the papillae are reduced to the average length of 496 μm. The connective densification disappears, and in the deep layer of the mucosa, muscle fibers that detach from the superficial layer of the tunica muscularis and that will constitute the future papillary muscle, can be observed.

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Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXIII, Issue 1
Written by Laura DARIE, Anca BULAI, Laura DUMITRU, Mihai CORNILĂ, Cristina FERNOAGĂ

The patient named Kim, a female French Bulldog was presented to the doctor since the age of two months. She attended a deworming and vaccination complete scheme. Over the time, she went through an episode of paraparesis which led to the diagnosis of lesions in the T3-L3 column section (resulting from RX). After a few months, neurological signs have emerged from the forebrain. After performing the clinical and neurological examination, an investigation that would exclude some conditions (differential diagnosis based on the acronym "VITAMIND"), a brain MRI was performed. The diagnosis was hydrocephalus. As a result, this case brings together two anomalies: one at the brain level and the other from the spine. Each new sign the owner described, was completed every time with clinical and neurological examination witch led to a correct neurological diagnosis. The treatment was initiated immediately and was adjusted according to patient response to one of the prescription medications (acetazolamide).

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Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXIII, Issue 2
Written by Laura DARIE, Anca BULAI, Laura DUMITRU, Mihai Cornilă, Cristina FERNOAGĂ

The patient named Kim, a female French Bulldog was presented to the doctor since the age of two months. She attended a deworming and vaccination complete scheme. Over the time, she went through an episode of paraparesis which led to the diagnosis of lesions in the T3-L3 column section (resulting from RX). After a few months, neurological signs have emerged from the forebrain. After performing the clinical and neurological examination, an investigation that would exclude some conditions (differential diagnosis based on the acronym "VITAMIND"), a brain MRI was performed. The diagnosis was hydrocephalus. As a result, this case brings together two anomalies: one at the brain level and the other from the spine. Each new sign the owner described, was completed every time with clinical and neurological examination witch led to a correct neurological diagnosis. The treatment was initiated immediately and was adjusted according to patient response to one of the prescription medications (acetazolamide).

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Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. 19 ISSUE 4
Written by Marcel Theodor PARASCHIVESCU, Marcel PARASCHIVESCU, Cristina GARLEA

Humans are live beings. In order to live they need food. Disposing of creative mind Homo sapiens became the top consumer in the trophic chain on the Earth and multiplied faster than their food. Then people have started to cultivate plants and to breed animals to ensure their food. Their struggle for life developed inside human species and conducted to wars which became more and more destructive. The last two World Wars were tremendously hard. So the United Nations’ Organization disposing of a Security Council has been made up to secure people against new World Wars. But recognizing that lack of food stays at the wars’ origins ONU included a special Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), dedicated to secure people against famine anywhere on the Earth. On the above basis, the present paper trays to explain scientifically, the importance of farm animal biodiversity for the food security of the world. How FAO acted to sustain farm animal biodiversity is exposed, as well. Some controversial questions and misunderstanding concerning relations between environment protection especially referring to the Earth’s global heating and farm animal biodiversity are answered, too. At the end opinions and hopes related to the contributions of the future Conference on the Sustainable Development that will have place in June of the next year and the food security of the World are emphasized. The final conclusions are: natural animal biodiversity secures the biological balance on the Earth; farm animal artificial biodiversity helps human food security and the social sustainability.

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Humans are live beings. In order to live they need food. Disposing of creative mind Homo sapiens became the top consumer in the trophic chain on the Earth and multiplied faster than their food. Then people have started to cultivate plants and to breed animals to ensure their food. Their struggle for life developed inside human species and conducted to wars which became more and more destructive. The last two World Wars were tremendously hard. So the United Nations’ Organization disposing of a Security Council has been made up to secure people against new World Wars. But recognizing that lack of food stays at the wars’ origins ONU included a special Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), dedicated to secure people against famine anywhere on the Earth. On the above basis, the present paper trays to explain scientifically, the importance of farm animal biodiversity for the food security of the world. How FAO acted to sustain farm animal biodiversity is exposed, as well. Some controversial questions and misunderstanding concerning relations between environment protection especially referring to the Earth’s global heating and farm animal biodiversity are answered, too. At the end opinions and hopes related to the contributions of the future Conference on the Sustainable Development that will have place in June of the next year and the food security of the World are emphasized. The final conclusions are: natural animal biodiversity secures the biological balance on the Earth; farm animal artificial biodiversity helps human food security and the social sustainability.

Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXIV, Issue 2
Written by Adrian DUMITRU, Gabriela CHIOVEANU, Mariana IONITA, Gheorghe DOBRE, Ioan Liviu MITREA

Nosema spp., a microsporidian parasite (Microspora: Microsporidida), is well known for the negative impact on the bee colony. In areas with temperate climate, the nosemosis’s evolution in the apiary is different from season to season. During spring, when in the hive, due to the consumption of honey and bee bread reserves contaminated with spores, the infectious pressure is increasing, the disease worsens, and there is need for a medical intervention. For this, there is an increasing interest for additional products to control this infection. Therefore, this study aimed to test amprolium hydrochloride 20% (C14H19CIN4), a product which has a structure similar to the B1 vitamin (thiamine) towards which it is a competitive antagonist, for controlling Nosema infection in honey bees. The trial was carried out under laboratory conditions and the microclimate parameters have been monitorized. There were used two experimental modules and one control, each module consisting of two batches of bees naturally infected with Nosema spp., with at least 100 bees (122-185) per batch. The batches have been organized according to the current standards, in wooden cages (with the size of 190/150/50 mm) equipped with window, ventilation mesh and feeder. Throughout the trial, the product has proved to control the development of the parasite so as at an initial infection level of approx. 5,750,000 spores/bee, by the end, in the experimental batches no spores of Nosema spp. were detected. Also, there were not signs for adverse effects on bees. However, additional field and laboratory studies are necessary toward to develop an integrated control program over the bees’ active season.

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Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXIII, Issue 1
Written by Iulia PARASCHIV, Andrei STOIAN, Bogdan TASBAC, Teodoru SOARE, Codrut VISOIU, Manuella MILITARU

Exotic bird pathology comprises diseases, both infectious and non-infectious, incompletely studied so far as pathogenetic mechanisms, lesions identified and measures of management. The present study comprises a number of 33 cases of birds kept in captivity belonging to Corvidae, Fringillidae, Psittaculidae, Columbidae, Phasianidae and Apodidae families that were submitted to diagnosis after death of the birds. Out of these, 16 cases presented inflammatory lesions affecting different body organs and tissues. Results revealed frequent gross lesions of the lungs, liver and digestive tract. Histologic examination marked mainly lesions of fibrinous and necrotic pneumonia, necrotic hepatitis and catarrhal enteritis. Three cases were affected by chronic lesions of granulomatous inflammation located mainly in the coelomic cavity and digestive tract. Bacteriologic investigations revealed mostly Gram negative bacteria isolated from the lesions. Most frequent pathogens causing disease in the cases taken into study belonged to Salmonella, Escherichia, Pseudomonas, and Staphylococcus genera. In conclusion, results of inflammatory lesions revealed by gross and microscopic examination in correlation with microbiologic results represent a further step in evaluation of avian patients and risk of cross-contamination. Frequent affected regions in the body were the lower respiratory tract, liver and intestinal tract, suggestive for the type of contamination with the bacterial pathogens.

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Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXIV, Issue 2
Written by Tandzhu MEHMEDOV, Eva GYUROVA, Stanislav RADANSKI, Zapriyanka SHINDARSKA, Petar STAMBEROV

The main objective of our study was to determine the impact of CloSTAT® and Laktina® probiotics on the amino acid composition of pheasant meat. The experiment included 90 one-day pheasant chicks (Phasianus colchicus colchicus), divided into 3 groups grown under free access to food and water for 3 months. All birds were fed with standard pheasant feed, to the second group it was added CloSTAT® probiotics (0.5 g / kg fodder); and Laktina® probiotic (0.5 g / l water) was added to the third group. At the end of the experiment, five pheasants were sampled from each group after slaughtering. The following amino acids have been tested: asparagine, threonine, serine, glutamine, proline, cystine, glycine, alanine, valine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, histidine, lysine and arginine. The results of the experiment show that the probiotic CloSTAT® influences, albeit not statistically-significantly, the amino acid composition of pheasant meat.

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Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXI
Written by Tandzhu MEHMEDOV, Eva GYUROVA, Stanislav RADANSKI, Zapryanka SHINDARSKA

Probiotics are widely accepted as an alternative to the nutritive antibiotics in poultry production as opposed to farm breeding pheasants.The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of probiotics CloSTAT® and Laktina® on meat quality of 90 day-old pheasants. The experiment was conducted with 90 newly hatched pheasants (Phasianus colchicus colchicus), divided into 3 groups of 30 birds in each group, floor breeding with free access to food and water for 90 days. The three groups were fed with a standard compound feed for pheasants ad libitum, for the experimental groups as follows:for the second group (group B) probiotic CloSTAT® (0,5 g/kg feed) was added; and for the third group (group C) probiotic Laktina® (0,5 g/l of drinking water) was added. After completion of the experiment from each group were slaughtered 5 pheasants for meat sampling of the breast and leg. The following indicators were analysed: pH 24h post mortem, the water holding capacity, colour of the meat, content of myoglobin, protein and ash content. The results of the experiment showed that the use of the probiotics CloSTAT® and Laktina® increases the pH of the breast muscle, lightens the colour and decreases the myoglobin content in the leg and breast muscle, increases the water and mineral content in the leg muscle. The probiotics impact the protein metabolism in leg and breast muscle in different ways. The use of probiotic Laktina ® leads to the accumulation of a larger amount of proteins in the breast muscle, and the use of CloSTAT® - reduces their amount in the leg muscle.

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