PRINT ISSN 1222-5304, ISSN-L: 2065-1295, ISSN CD: 2343-9394,ISSN ONLINE 2067-3663
 

Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXIII, Issue 2
Written by Laurențiu LEICA, Ioan Liviu MITREA, Mariana IONITA

Canine babesiosis is a protozoan tick-borne disease affecting dogs worldwide. Knowledge on the prevalence and clinico-pathological aspects of Babesia species infecting dogs is of epidemiological and veterinary medical interest. Here we describe twenty cases of clinical babesiosis diagnosed in dogs, between March-June 2016, in a Veterinary Clinic located in the seaside (Dobrogea region) of Romania. Dogs with clinical signs compatible for babesiosis and positive when tested for the presence of intraerytrocytic protozoan parasites using the blood smear method were included in the study. Of the total animals, the most affected were adults (over 8 years of age); dogs of Bichon Maltese breed and male animals appear in higher numbers. The clinical presentation, pathological findings and therapeutic approaches are discussed in three clinical groups: mild, moderate, and severe babesiosis. Group one comprises dogs (n=9) with mild babesiosis characterized by lethargy, anorexia, fever without major changes in the hematological parameters; no other organ pathology. Dogs (n=5) with moderate babesiosis showed at least one change in the hematological (anaemia, thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia, neutropenia/neutrophilia, leukocytosis) and/or biochemical (elevated levels of liver enzymes, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine, low albuminemia) parameters, reflecting an organ disorder. The third group included dogs (n=6) which developed complications associated with babesiosis, presenting at least two of the following complications: acute renal failure (n=3), hepatopathy (n=4), pancreatitis (n=2), acute respiratory distress syndrome (n=1). All animals were treated with imidocarb. Additionally, for dogs with moderate and severe babesiosis, a symptomatic treatment (intravenous fluid therapy, antiinflamatory, antypiretic, antiemetic, antispastic, procoagulant drugs) was administrated, while four dogs with severe anemia (PCV: 14 -27.57%) needed blood transfusion, too. The recovery rate (100%, 100%, and 50%, respectively) for the three clinical groups and mortality rate (0, 0, and 50%, respectively) revealed that a successful treatment is depending on the severity of diseases and the individual response of the host.

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Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXIV, Issue 1
Written by Alexandra Mihaela POPA, Ana-Maria GOANȚĂ, Cristina FERNOAGĂ , Lucian IONIȚĂ, Mario CODREANU

The aim of this study is to underline the significance of ethylene glycol poisoning as a differential diagnosis in young outdoor cats presented with sudden onset of lethargy in the absence of other clinical signs whose state continues to degrade over a few hours. Ethylene glycol intoxication is more common in dogs than in cats, as they are more tempted by its sweet taste. Cats are more frequently intoxicated through cutaneous absorption and grooming and have a lower minimum toxic dose. Clinical signs include polyuria, hyporeflexia and ataxia, that progress to depression, stupor and hypothermia and signs of acute kidney failure. A 9 months-old male intact cat presented in a precomatose state in our clinic. The anamnesis indicated that it was an indoor-outdoor cat with no medical history which had been been away from home for a few hours. Clinically, it presented with inappetence and lethargy. The physical examination revealed a precomatose state with hypothermia (36.8°C), dehydration, cyanotic mucous membranes, uremic halitosis, mydriasis and an absent pupillary light reflex. Blood biochemistry revealed a blood urea nitrogen of 75 mg/dL and a creatinine of 11.8 mg/dL. Repeated blood glucose measurements revealed oscilations between hypo- and hyperglycemia despite therapeutical interventions. The ultrasonographic examination showed kidney lesions suggestive of ethylene glycol toxicity. The microscopic examination of the urinary sediment revealed calcium oxalate crystals. Based on the paraclinical evidence, we suspected an intoxication with antifreeze such as ethylene glycol. The cat was treated specifically and rehydrated, but after 48 hours the its clinical state had worsened and the decision was made to put the cat to sleep. Even though the incidence is lower in cats, ethylene glycol toxicity should be added to the list of differential diagnoses in cats, in particular during the cold season when antifreeze is more commonly used and mostly when the symptomatology is suggestive of an acute intoxication.

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Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXIII, Issue 1
Written by Roxana Georgiana ANGHEL, Ioan Liviu MITREA, Mariana IONIŢ

Canine Vector Borne Diseases (CVBD) have a worldwide impact as some are of zoonotic concern and they lead to a variety of serious infections mostly classified by their vectors. The pathogens co-infecting the dogs are linked to their associated vector agents and with their natural habitat. Dogs with clinical signs compatible for VBDs should be tested for more than one pathogen as the signs may be often non- specific and they may vary from one individual to another. Co-infections may potentiate the disease pathogenesis, thereby changing clinical manifestations associated with singular infections. Seven cases were selected among dogs referred in the Veterinary Clinic, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest during of 2016, showing clinical signs compatible with VBD. They were serologically-positive for more than one pathogen. The seroreactivity revealed co-infections in dogs with four arthropod-borne pathogens: Dirofilaria immitis + Anaplasma spp. (3 dogs), D. immitis + Erlichia canis (2 dogs), E. canis + Borelia burgdorferi (1 dog ) and E. canis + Anaplasma spp. (1 dog). One dog, serological positive for D. immitis and A. phagocytophilum, was also positive for Babesia canis, detected in the blood smear. The present study emphasizes the chalenge of the diagnostic, therapeutics and management of co-infected dogs and illustrates the correlation between clinical aspects that the dogs are first presented with and the full panel of paraclinical investigations like imagistical (radiography, ultrasonography) and the blood analyses (haematology, biochemistry, citology and serology).

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Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. 19 ISSUE 4
Written by Madalina ROSCA, Adrian BURLACU, Gheorghe SOLCAN

The current study designs a potential mathematical model for insulin dependent diabetic cats, by examining the dynamics of glucose-insulin, based on an adaptive minimal model, commonly used for human investigations. Matlab software was used to develop the in silico environment. The glucose minimal model considered blood glucose concentration, blood insulin concentration, steady state blood insulin concentration and the steady state blood glucose concentration. An adaptation for the insulin minimal model was performed in order to describe exogenous insulin infusion, following the decay rate of blood insulin and the volume of insulin distribution pool. Model functionality was increased by describing glucose level alteration after a meal. In silico modelling demonstrated that it could be used to approximate insulin requirement in insulin dependent diabetic felines, based on the insulin dynamics after being administrated subcutaneously. The mathematical model provided reliable guiding information concerning insulin dosing in diabetic cats. Application of an adapted minimal model is a useful tool to examine glucose-insulin dynamics in cats, as it provides quantitative measure of insulin sensitivity. The predictions generated by the present model can be taken into account for insulin and meal adjustment during treatment and consequently a reduction of hypoglycemia incidence.

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Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXII, Issue 1
Written by Alina NĂSĂLEAN, Emöke PALL, Sergiu MUNTEAN, Laurenţiu OGNEAN

The analysis of the cell population present in the milk and colostrum of goats represents basic morphological characteristics of milk, through which the health of mammary gland and of the milk intended for the consumers can be determined. The purpose and the goals of these determinations consisted in comparative, quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the cellular content from raw milk and colostrum of goat from two lots of goats, clinically healthy, the breeds being French Alpine (n = 10) and Romanian Carpathian (n = 10). Morpho-physiological investigations were conducted during March-July 2015, on samples of raw milk and colostrum, using Squash technique, panoptic colored (Dia-Quik-Panoptic), and milk cytogram method. Microscopic examination revealed that the milk cytogram of both breeds’ colostrum shows a higher frequency of epithelial cells, lactocytes in various forms of activity, lymphocytes, macrophages. The highest frequency was for neutrophils. The milk cytogram in raw mixture milk indicates that the cell population is very similar for both races, with same increase or decrease in those studied months. The neutrophils reached an average of 45.7% for the Alpines, respectively 46.17% for the Carpathians. There were no significant differences of interest regarding cell population of raw milk and colostrum of both races. In conclusion, the results support the need for correlation between quantitative and qualitative microscopic cytological tests on smears because there are no standards in automated system for goat milk in terms of health assessment of the mammary gland and of safety of the milk meant for consumers.

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Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXI
Written by Kateryna GROM

Fish are the most numerous group of vertebrates in the world and their anatomy is still not completely studied. This article is aimed to present the morphological study of swimbladder in different species of ray-finned fish which have industrial value - namely Russian sturgeon, American paddlefish (order Acipenseriformes), rainbow trout (order Salmoniformes), northern pike (order Esociformes), zander (order Perciformes) - and to compare it’s structure and shape with the swimbladder of common carp (order Cypriniformes). Also the analysis of functions of swimbladder is given. The research was carried out in the Department of Animal Anatomy of National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine. The study was performed by anatomical dissection on cadavers of 3 fish of each species with further macroscopic examination of swimbladderes. The research showed that in all investigated species this organ has significant differences and is composed of one chamber. The swimbladder of common carp is composed of two chambers (anterior and posterior). Almost all investigated species of fish have connection between the swimbladder and the gut (pneumatic duct), so they are believed to be physostomes. The study highlighted characteristic features of swimbladder in different species of fish that has practical value for better understanding of fish anatomy and possible swimbladder disorders.

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Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. 19 ISSUE 4
Written by COMPARATIVE ELECTROPHORESIS OF SERUM PROTEINS IN RATS TREATED WITH TWO ORALLY DELIVERED LECTINS

Electrophoresis is a common technique to assess the serum or plasma proteins patterns associated with different physiological and pathological conditions in humans and animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum protein fractions and their changes induced by potato shoots and bean pods lectins’ administration to healthy Wistar rats. Both lectins induced an albumins (%) increase, accompanied by a slight decrease in α1 and α2 globulins. The most important change was recorded for β-globulins that significantly decreased in the case of both lectins administration. Serum protein electrophoresis demonstrated that the studied lectins, even orally delivered, survived proteolytic attack during gastrointestinal passage, were absorbed, and induced functional alterations of different organs.

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Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXI
Written by Alina NĂSALEĂN, Iulia BALACI, Laura PARLAPAN and Laurenţiu OGNEAN

Milk is considered the most complete aliment, being abundant in high quality nutritive substances. The composition of goat milk, as well as its quality, differs between breeds and living area. Milk somatic cells are an indicator of hygienic quality as well as of the health of the mammary gland. The research aims the comparative analysis of milk quality depending on breed, as well as mammary gland health, goats being selected out of a group of 60 raised and fed in identical conditions in a private farm in Cluj County, considered clinically healthy being at the second lactation. For the determination there have been analyzed individual samples of raw milk harvested during July-September 2014 from Alpine (n=10) and Carpathian (n=10) breeds goats, using an automatic device for somatic cells count of Fossomatic type. Following the corroboration of data for 6 Alpine goats the number of somatic cells was over the maximum admitted limit (400000/ml milk), respectively 4 were under the limit. Fort the Carpathian breed 8 of them were between limits and only 2 went over this limit. The conclusion of this study highlights the acquired resistance of indigene breeds compared to imported ones.

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Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXI
Written by Radu M. GIUPANĂ, Ioan S. GROZA, Constantin Gh. CERBU, Mihaela NICULAE, Krisztina RINDT, Marina SPINU

Bovine mastitis is a major problem of dairy animals despite the numerous preventive and therapeutic approaches. Given the increased antibiotic resistance of the involved bacterial strains, this research aimed to evaluate the efficacy of alternative therapy with honey and propolis in treating mastitis in cattle. The research was carried out on a group of 28 animals, aged 3 to 11 years, of Romanian Spotted and Red Holstein breeds. The investigations aimed the isolation and identification of bacteria involved in cases of clinical mastitis in cows, evaluation of their sensitivity/resistance to commonly used antibiotics, as well as the assessment of honey and propolis efficacy on bacteria isolated from mastitis cases of intensively managed cows. Main methods used were classical cultivation and Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion susceptibility test. Antibiotic resistant or highly resistant staphylococci were encountered in almost all milk samples. The comparative study regarding the use of various propolis tincture concentrations showed maximum efficacy for the 20% concentration, with decreasing effects for larger concentrations, which denied the hypothesis according to which increased concentrations produce increased effect. The efficacy of honey products depended upon concentration and bacterial strain, individualized tratment schemes being absolutely necessary.The results indicated that frequent and uncontrolled use of antibiotics against mastitis led to the development of multi- or total resistance to antibiotics, thus honey and propolis represented valuable therapeutical alternatives, especially in case of Staphylococcus. The obtained results are encouraging, mainly for the clinical use of propolis in therapy alone or in combination with antibiotics, after standardization of the method through in vivo studies and finding a method for diminishing the irritative effects of the propolis tincture.

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The spread of antibiotic resistances and the appearance of multiple-antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria has been recognized by the WHO as a serious problem that complicates medical treatment of bacterial infections. In last years, when campylobacteriosis became the most frequently disease the antibioresistance of this microorganism represents a serious problem. Campylobacter’s antibioresistance was carried out through the determination of minimal inhibitory concentration using Sensititre system. This analysis were performed in panels dedicated for these microorganisms. There were tested 132 Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli strains previously isolated from chicken meat. The species of Campylobacter was perform according ISO 10272/2006.Of the 132 analyzed Campylobacter strains, 39 strains were susceptible to all antimicrobial substances tested, and 93 strains showed resistance to at least one antimicrobial agent; 4 strains were resistant to 6 antimicrobial substances. C. coli showed a higher degree of resistance than C. jejuni to all antimicrobial substances that were tested.

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