GENERAL PRINCIPLES CONCERNING THE HARMONIZATION OF ROMANIAN LEGISLATION WITH THE EUROPEAN UNION IN THE FIELD OF PROTECTION OF ANIMALS USED FOR SCIENTIFIC SCOPE

Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXI
Written by Cristin COMAN, Magda GONCIAROV

The introduction of alternative methods in the research, in the diagnosis of diseases and in the production of biopreparations, led over time to a drastic reduction in the number of animals used for scientific scope in Romania. However, our country has always aligned legislation in this area with the European Union. In this regard, last year was transposed into national law Directive 63/2010 which refers to animal protection used for scientific scope, transposition materialized by Law no. 43/2014.Although the law is very complex, including a large number of issues, including general and special requirements on the units, care and housing of animals, animal species that can be used in procedures, there are a number of issues for which the law requires the development of a secondary legislation in areas such as: authorize breeders and users of laboratory animals, create a bank of organs and tissues of animal origin, able to reduce the number of animals used in experiments, authorization of projects, setting and punishing contraventions and others. This law, new for Romanian legislative landscape, will determine an increase in the level of consciousness in the use of this category of animals and conducting scientific research of the best quality.

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Coman C., Gonciarov M. 2015, GENERAL PRINCIPLES CONCERNING THE HARMONIZATION OF ROMANIAN LEGISLATION WITH THE EUROPEAN UNION IN THE FIELD OF PROTECTION OF ANIMALS USED FOR SCIENTIFIC SCOPE. Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXI, ISSN 2065-1295, 249-254.

HARVESTED EMBRYOS ASSESSMENT FOLLOWING POLIOVULATION USING FSH IN COWS WITH A VIEW TO THE BIODIVERSITY OF THE SPECIES

The paper aimed to present the possibility of obtaining a larger number of calves from valuable cows, increasing their contribution to genetic progress, completing the amelioration programs by artificial insemination, using poliovulation and embryo transfer. We used in this study 15 donor cows from the Montbeliarde breed belonging to three different farms from southern Romania. The current paper presents poliovulation results with a view to the number and quality of embryos harvested following the FSH poliovulation in decreasing doses. In the 16-th day of the protocol, the embryos were harvested and morphologically assessed before transferring or freezing them. After harvesting the embryos through the lavage of the uterine horns, they were transferred in special plates and they were identified employing a Nikon magnifier loupe. They were also evaluated employing an inverted Nikon Eclipse TS 100 microscope. Following the morphological assessment of the 116 harvested formations, they were classified as follows: 2 compact morulas (1.72%), 94 early blastocysts (81.03%), 13 blastocysts (11.21%) and 7 unfertilized ovules (6.03%). By employing this protocol, there were no instances of cystisation of ovarian follicles. This fact proves that the FSH administered in decreasing doses leads to a very uniform ovulation and, implicitly, to a smaller number of late ovulated follicles as compared to other poliovulation protocols.

HEART TOPOGRAPHY AND PERICARDIC LIGAMENTS OF GUINEA PIGS

Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXI
Written by Florin STAN, Melania CRIȘAN, Aurel DAMIAN, Cristian DEZDROBITU, Cristian MARTONOȘ and Alexandru GUDEA

Small rodents are the most used experimental models in research related to cardiovascular and respiratory system. The guinea pigs occupy a leading position. However, detailed anatomical descriptions of the thoracic cavity of this specie are relatively few in the literature. Compared to mice, rats or hamsters, widely used in research, electrocardiogram waves are similar to humans, making the guinea pigs to be the choice model for studies related to cardiac arrhythmias, and in particular, pharmacological studies. Using gross dissection of the thoracic cavity of ten guinea pigs, this study aims to achieve a detailed description of the heart topography and pericardial ligaments in guinea pigs. Occupying the majority of the narrow thoracic cavity, in the middle mediastinum, in guinea pigs, like all mammals, heart is double layer coated by the pericardium. It lies in the median plane, slightly oriented to the left at the level of 2nd-4th intercostals space and approximately at 1 cm cranial to the xiphoid appendix. External thin walls of the atria are separated from the ventricles by the grooves of coronary arteries and veins, showing multiple branches in all specimens studied. Ventrally and dorsally the ventricles are separated by two shallow interventricular sulci. Pericardial ligaments are well represented and are generated by reflection of the fibrous pericardium on the neighbouring structures, making heart attachment, mechanic protection of the heart and its great vessels. The following ligaments were visualized in all subjects: sterno-pericardial ligaments (cranial and caudal), in four subjects being joined by a thin blade of adipose tissue; phreno-pericardial ligaments (central-strong, left-shorter, missing in two subjects and right-long); dorsally the verterbro-pericardial ligaments which connect the pericard to the spinal cord, more developed on the left side, forming sheaths for the aorta and for the large vessels. In conclusion, pericardial ligaments achieved a dynamic balance, constantly modified in relation to the phases of the cardiac cycle, their knowledge being necessary both practitioners and researchers which uses guinea pigs as experimental models in cardiovascular studies.

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Stan F., Crișan M., Damian A., Dezdrobitu C., Martonoș C., Gudea A. 2015, HEART TOPOGRAPHY AND PERICARDIC LIGAMENTS OF GUINEA PIGS. Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXI, ISSN 2065-1295, 57-64.

HEMATOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS DURING THE EARLY STAGES OF N-NITROSODIETHYLAMINEINDUCED HEPATOCARCINOGENESIS IN TURKEYS

Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXI
Written by Branimir NIKOLOV, Vassil MANOV, Roman PEPOVICH, Tandzhu MEHMEDOV, Kalin HRISTOV, Krasimira GENOVA, Elena NIKOLOVA, Reneta PETROVA, Any GEORGIEVA, Anton KRIL

Some haematological and biochemical parameters in turkeys, hatched from embryonated eggs inoculated with the proven hepatocarcinogen N-nitrosodiethylamine were studied. Histopathology confirmed the presence of clear-cell and basophilic foci of altered hepatocytes and hyperplasia of cholangiocytes. The application of the chemical carcinogen affected both haematological and biochemical parameters. The established conditions such as thrombocytopenia and increased levels of the major liver enzymes were associated with the process of malignancy. In addition, leukogram abnormalities (leukocytosis, lymphocytosis and neutropenia) as well as hypoproteinaemia, hypoalbuminaemia and hypoglycemia were also observed.

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Nikolov B., Manov V., Pepovich R., Mehmedov T., Hristov K., Genova K., Nikolova E., Petrova R., Georgieva A., Kril A. 2015, HEMATOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS DURING THE EARLY STAGES OF N-NITROSODIETHYLAMINEINDUCED HEPATOCARCINOGENESIS IN TURKEYS. Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXI, ISSN 2065-1295, 122-127.

HISTOSTRUCTURAL APPRECIATION OF THE FORESTOMACH FIRST COMPARTMENT MUCOSA IN SHEEP

Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXII, Issue 2
Written by Iuliana CAZIMIR, Cristina-Ana CONSTANTINESCU, Maria Isabella RADU

The mucosa of the ruminal wall was analyzed and measured in the different areas. First involved in this study was the ventral sac mucosa, and after were the pillars’ region and the intermediary area between the reticulum and the rumen. Sheep from the white variety of the indigenous ovine breed Ţurcană (Ovis aries) were used, the pieces of interest being collected and processed using conventional histological techniques, obtaining numerous seriated slides. After they were photographed and analyzed, we have been able to identify in the structure of the mucosa a cornified stratified squamous epithelium, lamina propria, and a densification of connective fibers. All three components of the mucosa form the ruminal papillae which reach the maximum height in the ventral sac area. We tried to classify them in organized groups, according to their average shape, length and width, by the thickness of the epithelium that lines each papilla, and the proportion occupied by the connective axis. In the area of the pillars, where the ruminal papillae are missing, the mucosa has the tendency to form extremely reduced folds, based on the thickening of the epithelium, that will subsequently attract the lamina propria. In the rumino-reticular junctional area, the papillae are reduced to the average length of 496 μm. The connective densification disappears, and in the deep layer of the mucosa, muscle fibers that detach from the superficial layer of the tunica muscularis and that will constitute the future papillary muscle, can be observed.

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CAZIMIR I., CONSTANTINESCU C.A., RADU M.I. 2016, HISTOSTRUCTURAL APPRECIATION OF THE FORESTOMACH FIRST COMPARTMENT MUCOSA IN SHEEP. Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXII, Issue 2, ISSN 2065-1295, 17-22.

IMPORTANCE OF FARM ANIMAL BIODIVERSITY IN HUMANKIND SECURITY

Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. 19 ISSUE 4
Written by Marcel Theodor PARASCHIVESCU, Marcel PARASCHIVESCU, Cristina GARLEA

Humans are live beings. In order to live they need food. Disposing of creative mind Homo sapiens became the top consumer in the trophic chain on the Earth and multiplied faster than their food. Then people have started to cultivate plants and to breed animals to ensure their food. Their struggle for life developed inside human species and conducted to wars which became more and more destructive. The last two World Wars were tremendously hard. So the United Nations’ Organization disposing of a Security Council has been made up to secure people against new World Wars. But recognizing that lack of food stays at the wars’ origins ONU included a special Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), dedicated to secure people against famine anywhere on the Earth. On the above basis, the present paper trays to explain scientifically, the importance of farm animal biodiversity for the food security of the world. How FAO acted to sustain farm animal biodiversity is exposed, as well. Some controversial questions and misunderstanding concerning relations between environment protection especially referring to the Earth’s global heating and farm animal biodiversity are answered, too. At the end opinions and hopes related to the contributions of the future Conference on the Sustainable Development that will have place in June of the next year and the food security of the World are emphasized. The final conclusions are: natural animal biodiversity secures the biological balance on the Earth; farm animal artificial biodiversity helps human food security and the social sustainability.

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Marcel Theodor PARASCHIVESCU, Marcel PARASCHIVESCU, Cristina GARLEA 2013, IMPORTANCE OF FARM ANIMAL BIODIVERSITY IN HUMANKIND SECURITY. Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. 19 ISSUE 4, PRINT ISSN 2065-1317, 109-116.

IMPORTANCE OF FARM ANIMAL BIODIVERSITY IN HUMANKIND SECURITY

Humans are live beings. In order to live they need food. Disposing of creative mind Homo sapiens became the top consumer in the trophic chain on the Earth and multiplied faster than their food. Then people have started to cultivate plants and to breed animals to ensure their food. Their struggle for life developed inside human species and conducted to wars which became more and more destructive. The last two World Wars were tremendously hard. So the United Nations’ Organization disposing of a Security Council has been made up to secure people against new World Wars. But recognizing that lack of food stays at the wars’ origins ONU included a special Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), dedicated to secure people against famine anywhere on the Earth. On the above basis, the present paper trays to explain scientifically, the importance of farm animal biodiversity for the food security of the world. How FAO acted to sustain farm animal biodiversity is exposed, as well. Some controversial questions and misunderstanding concerning relations between environment protection especially referring to the Earth’s global heating and farm animal biodiversity are answered, too. At the end opinions and hopes related to the contributions of the future Conference on the Sustainable Development that will have place in June of the next year and the food security of the World are emphasized. The final conclusions are: natural animal biodiversity secures the biological balance on the Earth; farm animal artificial biodiversity helps human food security and the social sustainability.

INFLUENCE OF PROBIOTICS CLOSTAT® AND LAKTINA® ON THE QUALITY OF MEAT OF PHEASANTS

Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXI
Written by Tandzhu MEHMEDOV, Eva GYUROVA, Stanislav RADANSKI, Zapryanka SHINDARSKA

Probiotics are widely accepted as an alternative to the nutritive antibiotics in poultry production as opposed to farm breeding pheasants.The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of probiotics CloSTAT® and Laktina® on meat quality of 90 day-old pheasants. The experiment was conducted with 90 newly hatched pheasants (Phasianus colchicus colchicus), divided into 3 groups of 30 birds in each group, floor breeding with free access to food and water for 90 days. The three groups were fed with a standard compound feed for pheasants ad libitum, for the experimental groups as follows:for the second group (group B) probiotic CloSTAT® (0,5 g/kg feed) was added; and for the third group (group C) probiotic Laktina® (0,5 g/l of drinking water) was added. After completion of the experiment from each group were slaughtered 5 pheasants for meat sampling of the breast and leg. The following indicators were analysed: pH 24h post mortem, the water holding capacity, colour of the meat, content of myoglobin, protein and ash content. The results of the experiment showed that the use of the probiotics CloSTAT® and Laktina® increases the pH of the breast muscle, lightens the colour and decreases the myoglobin content in the leg and breast muscle, increases the water and mineral content in the leg muscle. The probiotics impact the protein metabolism in leg and breast muscle in different ways. The use of probiotic Laktina ® leads to the accumulation of a larger amount of proteins in the breast muscle, and the use of CloSTAT® - reduces their amount in the leg muscle.

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Mehmedov T., Gyurova E., Radanski S., Shindarska Z. 2015, INFLUENCE OF PROBIOTICS CLOSTAT® AND LAKTINA® ON THE QUALITY OF MEAT OF PHEASANTS. Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXI, ISSN 2065-1295, 239-248.

INFLUENCE OF PROTEIN RESTRICTION IN CALVES AFTER WEANING ON CONSUMPTION, WEIGHT GAIN AND FEEDING EFFICIENCY

Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXI
Written by Mircea NICOLAE, Smaranda POP, Cosmin ȘONEA

The study was done on 40 Holstein calves after weaning and followed the effects of lower protein level of rations on some breeding parameters. It was a pre-experimental period of 3 weeks, when all animals were fed by classic rations, reaching about 87 kg body weight. The experience was conducted in two periods of 12 and 10 weeks, respectively. In the first period, the animals were divided in two experimental groups (20 cap. each one), one fed a normal protein level in ration (NP) and the other with a low protein level in ration (LP). In the 2nd period, the animals were divided in 4 experimental groups: NP_NP (normal protein level in both periods of experience), NP_LP (normal protein level in the first period and low in the second), LP_NP (low protein level in the first period and normal in the second) and LP_LP (low protein levels in both experimental periods). Calves were fed ad libitum by a corn-silage-based compound diet. The latter had 20% CP (in DM) in NP diet or 10% CP in LP diet. The entire ration had 14.7% CP (in DM) in the normal situation and 9% CP if protein was restricted. In terms of reducing the level of protein, decreases feed intake, lowest in group LP_LP, 72.2 g DM/kg kg0.75 during the 2nd period. LP_NP group recorded, in the second part of the experience, the greatest increase in weight, 1329 g/day, as against (?) NP_NP group, 1131 g/day, and a difference between the two groups (which ones?) of 17.5%, which demonstrates the compensatory growth. The whole experience, considering the weight gain of NP_NP group (1118 g/day) a reference element (100%), NP_LP group achieved 71%, LP_NP achieved 72% and LP_LP group achieved only 34%. Regarding the specific consumption of protein in the whole experience, it was 563 g CP/kg gain in group NP_NP and 793 g CP/ kg gain in group LP_NP.

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Nicolae M., Pop S., Șonea C. 2015, INFLUENCE OF PROTEIN RESTRICTION IN CALVES AFTER WEANING ON CONSUMPTION, WEIGHT GAIN AND FEEDING EFFICIENCY. Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXI, ISSN 2065-1295, 250-253.

INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS REGULATORY IN SAFETY FOOD FIELD

Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXII, Issue 2
Written by Magda GONCIAROV

The paper aims to present the main international organizations with responsibilities in food safety. Not incidentally, these organizations issue legal regulations in this area. Even if they are very popular, few know their responsibilities and competencies. The main international organization that develops food safety regulations, some of them have exclusive competences in the field of food safety, as European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) or the Codex Alimentarius Commission, and others have only a component of food safety, such as World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), United Nations for Food and Agriculture (FAO), World Health Organization (WHO) and World Trade Organization (WTO).

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GONCIAROV M. 2016, INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS REGULATORY IN SAFETY FOOD FIELD. Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXII, Issue 2, ISSN 2065-1295, 89-93.


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