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Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXI
Written by Radu CONSTANTINESCU, Victor CRIVINEANU, Gheorghe GORAN, Doina DANEȘ, Dorin ȚOGOE, Mario Darius CODREANU

Leptospirosis represents a scattered zoonosis determined by antigenically distinct serovars of Leptospira interrogans, a sporadic bacterial disease which causes severe clinical illness in dogs and humans. Leptospira thrive directly within hosts, dogs and humans, and reservoirs hosts, rodents, and indirectly within the environment. Leptospirosis is an odd disease, with a large variety of symptomatology, or, in some cases, shows no signs or symptoms at all. That can be explained by the dog's organism defense mechanisms against infection. Although, in other cases, the disease may be life threatening. Even when symptoms and signs are quite specific, in order to confirm the diagnosis it is compulsory to perform laboratory tests, such as dark-field microscopy examination (DFM) and microscopic agglutination test (MAT). In this study we highlighted the request to link the clinical history with the clinical signs and paraclinical specific tests. The purpose of this paper is to show how to relate the results of different test with the clinical stage of the illness.

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Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXIII, Issue 1
Written by Ruxandra TUDOR, Ruxandra COSTEA, Andra DEGAN, Gabriel PREDOI

This study was performed in order to investigate the correlation between duration of gas anaesthesia with isoflurane and the reduction of tear production in geriatric patients. The study was conducted on 15 dogs (8 males and 7 females, ages between 9 and 14 years old) that were presented at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest between September – October 2016. Preanesthetic examination was performed according to ASA status (American Society of Anesthesiologists). Patients premedication was made with Midazolam 0.2 mg/kg and Butorphanol 0.2 mg/kg injected intramuscularly (IM) or intravenously (IV). All dogs were intubated, induction was made with Propofol 4-6 mg/kg IV and maintenance was performed with Isoflurane. All patients had Schirmer Tear Test (STT) readings taken prior to intubation and immediately after the isoflurane was turned off. All dogs that were under isoflurane anaesthesia for less than 30 minutes had a slight reduction of tear production compared with those that exceeded 30 minutes in which it was noticed a drastic decrease in tear production. From the total of 15 dogs: 3 dogs that were under isoflurane anaesthesia for less than 30 minutes had a final STT of 15 mm/min +/- 3 mm/min compared with those in which anaesthesia time exceeded 30-40 minutes where the final STT was 5 +/- 3 mm/min.

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Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXIII, Issue 1
Written by Florin LECA, Ana-Simina MIHAI, Nicolae DOJANA

Five healthy Golden Retrievers aged from 1.5 to 3 years old, three males and two females, were studied during a normal “playing” time considered as submaximal exercise, under ordinary circumstances, preserving the usual routine (location, normal weather conditions, to the same group). From the medical history, it was excluded previous symptoms as fatigue or other cardiac related symptoms based on subjective observations. Each individual heart rate was measured ten minutes intervals, during 60 minutes exercises, using a heart rate monitor device. Blood lactate was measured with fast strip, at the beginning and at the end of the test. The results showed that heart rate was normal in 4 cases, ranging between 101 and 173 beats per minute( bpm), and abnormal in one dog reaching the maximal heart rate during a submaximal test, with four consecutive values between 215 and 245 bpm. The lactate values were normal for all the subjects, at the end of the test, none of the dogs achieving the superior lactate threshold. After performing a cardiac examination in all five subjects (including Doppler echocardiography and Holter electrocardiogram), a good correlation was observed between heart rate values of the dog that reached maximal heart rate and a suspicion of a cardiac problem (preclinical case of dilated cardiomyopathy), but no evidence of altered or a raise in blood lactate under this submaximal test.

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Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXI
Written by Timea KOCIS, Ioan ȚIBRU

The present paper conveys the results obtained by applying a behaviour evaluation test to dogs in shelters, The Experiments took place in a shelter in Timisoara, and their purpose was to differentiate those dogs which, from a behavioural point of view, fulfil adoption criteria from those which present various disorders that make the adoption process difficult. In order to carry out the study a number of 30 dogs have been tested, the basic test criteria where the basic commands such as sit, stay, fetch a toy, taking away the food bowl and the reaction to the doll. The study concluded with the fact that all 30 dogs could be adopted, showing only minor behavioural disorders due to the prolonged stay at the shelter.

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Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXII, Issue 1
Written by Marcel PARASCHIVESCU, Marcel Theodor PARASCHIVESCU

The present paper intents to stress the importance of the body type in highly productive dairy cattle breeds. Arguments of the presented concept are deduced from the current practice of the Holstein Friesian Association of USA since the Holstein Friesian Breed of America has the highest genetic pressure for milk production. The high genetic merit of individuals concerning milk production is the result of using only one selection criterion for the discriminating reproduction with the registered in Herd Book individuals. Further the resulted genetic progress is sustained by a clever nominalization of pairs ensuring a strong sturdiness of the body to large quantities of feed to be ingested and a convenient dry matter content of milk. In addition to these breeding schemes some management measures are in use. Among these the most important are a good rest and a regular milking. Since Holstein-Friesian cattle are huge animals consuming concentrate feeds alternative trails to produce richer in dry matter milk are in course. In this case more forage feeds are used. In this kind of breeds the sturdiness of animals is an open question. Some experience in this respect could be finding in New Zeeland, but the farming system there is completely peculiar.

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In the past years the concern related to transfusional medicine in veterinary practice has thoroughly increased due to the development of emergency medicine and also to veterinarians’ practical abilities. Cryopreservation of blood or its products defines the procedures that allow blood to keep its viability in a sterile state for an indefinite period of time without damaging the biological properties

Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXIII, Issue 1
Written by Ruxandra COSTEA, Andra DEGAN, Ruxandra TUDOR

Crystalloids and colloids are first options for fluid resuscitation. Crystalloids expand extracellular volume, while colloids (synthetic and natural) exert a high oncotic pressure and expand volume by oncotic pressure. Many clinical studies advocate the use of crystalloids versus colloids. Greater fluid volumes are required to meet the same targets with crystalloids than with colloids, but there is a heterogenity among studies. Crystalloids’ effect may lead to extracellular fluid accumulation, increased gastrointestinal wall edema, pulmonary edema, especially in patients with cardiac or renal dysfunctions. While low dose colloids preserve hematocrit and coagulation, there is a risk of abnormal hemostasis if high doses of colloids are administered. This study presents researches results regarding crystalloids/colloids ratio for fluid resuscitation during anesthesia.

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Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXIV, Issue 1
Written by Ana Maria GOANȚĂ, Roxana IGNĂTESCU (ȚÎMPĂU), Ana Maria Alexandra STĂNESCU, Valentina Alina SIMION, Lucian IONIȚĂ

Electrophoresis defines the migration of charged particles in an electrical field in accordance to their molecular charge and size. In clinical medicine, electrophoresis is used mainly to separate and thus differentiate between and proteins in a given sample, be it serum, urine, cerebrospinal fluid or others. This paper aims to briefly describe the fundamentals and scope of electrophoresis and review the most recent knowledge on urine protein electrophoresis. Urine electrophoresis (UEP) is always evaluated in conjunction with serum electrophoresis and a measurement of total urine protein. In human medicine, proteinuria has been identified and characterised based on this criterion. UEP can also be used to differentiate between glomerular and tubular disease, based on the quantity and size of the molecules. Considering the advances in human medicine and the wealth of disorders that can present with proteinuria in animals, the authors consider that this diagnostic technique deserves more attention in veterinary medicine, in particular as a valuable aid in the detection and identification of renal lesions.

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Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXIII, Issue 2
Written by Carmen NEGOIŢĂ, Valentina NEGOIŢĂ

Phaeohyphomycoses are recognized as opportunistic fungal infections caused by several genera of melanin-pigmented moulds (dematiaceous fungi) which are ubiquitous saprophytic agents found in soil, water and decaying vegetable matter. These infections are usually acquired by direct traumatic implantation of fungal elements into tissues or by contamination of open wounds, being invariably associated with an immunosuppressive or debilitated status. Phaeohyphomycoses are rarely reported in dogs, most appearing as focal or multifocal subcutaneous intact or ulcerated/fistulized nodules or plaques usually found in the facial area, the distal part of extremities or the tail, without any systemic signs. According to the literature data, Alternaria spp. were identified on the coat from 20-80% of healthy dogs and cats without any skin lesions. In this paper, we have reported a case of cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis with Alternaria spp. in a 3-year-old unspayed male Cane corso dog with chronic skin lesions, not responding to antibiotherapy. The diagnosis of fungal infection was based on cytology, fungal culture and clinical response to long term oral administration of itraconazole. In our opinion, the infection likely occurred by direct implantation into defective hairs as well as by contamination of ruptured follicular cysts with Alternaria spp.originated from skin colonization and the outdoor habitat. We also considered the inherited follicular dysplasia (color dilution alopecia) to be a promoting factor in acquisition of this opportunistic fungal infection. Finally, complete resolution of lesions under itraconazole therapy and lack of reccurence for 14 months were decisive features for diagnosis.

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Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXI
Written by Corina BADEA, Florin Ştefan HORA, Elena Mihaela TILIBAŞA, Marius Stelian ILIE, Sorin MORARIU, Gheorghe DĂRĂBUŞ

The study was conducted during October 2013 - February 2014 on twelve horses from several cities from Arad County, Romania. The aim was to identify the species of small strongyle nematodes (cyathostomin spp.) expelled after deworming of horses using fenbendazole 30 % at a dose of 10 mg per body weight. For this study only the horses with 250 strongyle eggs per gram of faeces or more have been selected. The faeces were collected 24, 36, 48 hours after the treatment for the identification of the strongyles expelled. All helminths expelled were collected in physiological serum, washed and fixed in lactophenol for 2 days for clarification of the anatomical structures and maintained in 70 % ethanol for later identification. All of the helmiths expelled were small strongyles (cyathostomin spp.) and identified by morphological criteria proposed by Tolliver, 2000 and Lichtenfels et al., 2008. The cyathostomins species found were: Cyathostomum catinatum, Cyathostomum pateratum, Cylicocyclus nassatus, Cylicostephanus longibursatus, Cylicostephanus goldi and Petrovinema poculatus

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