PRINT ISSN 1222-5304, ISSN-L: 2065-1295, ISSN CD: 2343-9394,ISSN ONLINE 2067-3663
 

Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXII, Issue 1
Written by Nicoleta Corina PREDESCU, Valentin NICORESCU, Carmen PETCU, Georgeta STEFAN, Camelia PAPUC

The ethanolic extracts of hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) and dog-rose (Rosa canina) were found to contain polyphenols with antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to assess the antioxidant properties of hawthorn and dog-rose polyphenols in linoleic acid emulsion model system, comparatively with synthetic antioxidant BHA. Polyphenols and BHA were incorporated in a linoleic acid emulsion at the final concentration of 100 ppm and then incubated at 80°C for 7 days. For determination of the progress of oxidation processes, primary and secondary peroxidation products levels were evaluated at every 24 hours. Hawthorn and dog-rose polyphenols inhibited the formation of lipid hydroperoxides, conjugated dienes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The protective effect of hawthorn and dog-rose polyphenols was superior to the one of BHA synthetic antioxidant.

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Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXI
Written by Corina PREDESCU, Camelia PAPUC, Valentin NICORESCU

Honey is a natural food produced by bees from the nectar of flowers and is a mixture of carbohydrates, amino acids, enzymes, vitamins and many bioactive compounds. Due to its special composition, honey is a functional food with antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Studies have shown that honey’s properties depend mainly on the vegetable source from which it is obtained, but also on the processing type and storage. This research aims to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of sunflower honey compared to meadow honey by assessing total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, total antioxidant activity, free radicals scavenging activity and reducing power. For the determination of total phenols and flavonoids, antioxidant capacity and reducing power, spectrophotometric methods were used. To assess free radicals scavenging activity, chemiluminometric methods were used. Meadow honey showed the highest concentration of polyphenols (143.29 ± 9.12 mg GAE / kg) and flavonoids (118.09±8.84 mg CE / kg). DPPH radical scavenging capacity was higher for sunflower honey (78.32 ± 5.11%) compared to meadow honey (45.12 ± 3.26%). The two honey types showed capacity to scavenge superoxide anion and singlet oxygen, with an inhibition rate of over 50%. In conclusion, sunflower honey and meadow honey presented important concentrations of polyphenols and flavonoids and the results suggest a relationship between honey type and total polyphenols and free radicals scavenging activity

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Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXIV, Issue 1
Written by Marcel Theodor PARASCHIVESCU

There are 20 years since the title “Artificial Insemination dynamics and prognosis in cattle” was the presented thesis by me as a graduate student. A 20 years period is long enough to find out if the dynamics and the prognosis were true. That time Artificial Insemination was appreciated as a strong mean to prevent venereal diseases, and to increase bulls’ fertility. It was also seen as a needed biotechnical in ET technology. From the scientifically point of view spermatozoa sexing was then preview the term of fertilization ability of sperms being fully satisfied. In breeding practice AI was seen as a very efficient mean to induce genetic progress using progeny tested sires and ET as short term way to transfer breeds of interest to new areas. It was considered AI mostly will be applied in dairy breed where all active populations will be reproduced by artificial insemination. In extensive systems of beef cattle farming AI will be few extended because of too much labor needed. For Romania AI has to be extended since the action continued to be sustained by the public finance that paid the deep frozen semen used by cow owners. They had to pay inoculation of semen only.Excepting the last prognosis all other of them fulfilled. But AI association to the other biotechnologies development has shown richer than it was then specified. In the present form progresses in biotechnologies AI assisted will be more discussed. Sperm sexing, MOET, IVF, Embryo sexing, artificial identical twins genesis, Mammal animal clone production and engineering of transgenic organisms are mentioned in relation with new organism genesis and their security food or economic importance.

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Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXI
Written by Marcel Theodor PARASCHIVESCU, George Florea TOBĂ, Marcel PARASCHIVESCU, Mariana Sandu

Forced increased fertility in cattle can be obtained by multiple ovulation embryo transfer (MOET). This paper presents results of a trial to shorten interval between two pollyovulation treatments to the term determined by the natural estrus shown by donors after the previous embryos’ collection. Pollyovulation was provoked using FSH. Experiment started with 4 Romanian Black and White heifers, 17 month aged, but only two of them answered to the treatment for estrus synchronization. Both these heifers have shown heat in the same day, at 11 days after uterine washing. A total number of 27 yellow bodies were counted (14 units in one heifer and 13 in the other), but only 12 embryos were collected (11 embryos from the first heifer and 1embryo from the second). There is no explanation of the fact. The resulted interval between pollyovulation treatments was 53 days, 7 days less than the 60 days interval recommended by literature. More interesting was the presence of a total 26 atretic follicles in the 4 days (diestrus state) of embryo collection. They must pertain to the first wave of follicles starting maturation after prostaglandin injection given at embryo collection to prevent pregnancy. The fact suggests the possibility to stimulate these waves of follicles to have shorter interval between pollyovulation treatments. It is counted that the interval could be shortened up to 25 days. If that is possible MOET could be applied in heifers to increase selection precision of mother of sire dams by progeny testing them. New idea is to use MOET in dams of known genetic merit to discover better compatibility of parental pairs to obtaining the wanted type of the breed. Experiments are needed also to establish if more frequent uterine washings cause or don’t cause alteration of uterine mucosa functions.

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Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXIII, Issue 1
Written by Florentin Gheorghe MILEA, Ion RADOI, Agripina ŞAPCALIU, Vasilică SAVU, Ovidiu POPA

Ascospherosis is an invasive mycosis occurring in Apis melifera bees, caused by Ascosphera apis that affects the 1-5 days aged bee larvae of maximum receptiveness at the age of 1-2 days. From the total of 18 apiaries identified in the active-inactive season 2016 in which the evolution of mycotic diseases was diagnosed, the chalk brood was present as a morbid entity with unique evolution in 10 apiaries (55.55 %), stone brood evolved in 2 apiaries (11.11 %), and mycotic diseases of mixed evolution were registered in 3 apiaries (16.66 %), out of which suspicions of major bacterial diseases in one apiary (5.55% cases) and in 2 apiaries evolved together with internal and external parasitoses (11.11 %). Regional incidence of chalk brood places the south-east area on first place having over 2/3 of positive tests. Season incidence of the chalk brood shows that over 38.8 % cases presented it at the end of the beekeeping season, and in the inactive season months (January – February) the incidence is minimum (11.11 % cases). Complex laboratory tests in all the 18 apiaries diagnosed positively with mycotic diseases permitted identification of Ascosphera apis spores in the samples collected from live bees intestines, pollen, bee bread and brood combs. Bee colonies in the monitored apiaries (59.56 %), in which ascopherosis evolved and did not present clinical signs, may be deemed infestation sources.

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Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXI
Written by Călin Csaba POP, Melania Ioana CRIȘAN, Aurel DAMIAN

Taxidermy is the art of dissecting and preserving animals as natural as possible, in order to exhibit them in natural science museums and in individual collections as trophies of the collectors or as decorating objects. In naturalization, minor surgical procedures for changing the mimics of the face are necessary in order to increase the value of the exhibits. The aim of the current work was to improve the technique of taxidermy in order to create valuable exhibits. Based on the bibliographic research and analysing the already existing pieces from different natural science museums and private collections, we noticed that technical improvements, especially of the facial region, were required in naturalizing the trophies coming from large mammals. The study was conducted on two deer heads. The naturalization was obtained by dissecting and removing the skin, excepting the ears, eye lids and oral cavity, where special procedures were required. The used method was systematic skinning. Tanning was made with eulan which insures a high flexibility and durability of the skin. The two prepared exhibits had an increased storage rate because there was no source of food for insects that could damage the material. With the improvement of naturalization technique of the exhibit, its storage life was also increasing. Application of new techniques of conservation and the use of new materials available in taxidermy, offers a long-term economic value to the exhibits in terms of structure and preservation of tissues.

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Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXIV, Issue 2
Written by Anca ȘEICARU, Cristian BELU

This study was done on three bodies of adult coypu. The material was obtained by cleaning and macerating bones in 37°C water. Following the whitening process the bones were consequently cleaned under a water stream and left to dry. The cervical vertebrae generally have the spinous processes at a uniform height, oriented caudally for vertebrae III-V, dorsally for vertebra VI and cranially for vertebra VII. The body of the cervical vertebrae is short and flattened dorso-ventrally; the cranial and caudal terminal facets are plane. The ventral vertebral crest is absent. The transverse processes are the same length, slightly more developed at vertebra VII. The transverse foramen is present, wide in diameter, being replaced at vertebra VII by a vertebral incisura. The atlas has rounded transverse processes, oriented dorsally. The transverse foramen is located on the caudal edge of the atlas wing. The lateral vertebral foramen and the alar foramen are joined through a thick alar notch. The axis has a thick, developed spinous process that ends in a tuberosity. Its transverse processes slightly surpass the caudal terminal facet.

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Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXIII, Issue 1
Written by Marie-Monique SORAN, Mariana IONIȚĂ, Ioan Liviu MITREA

Giardia is a ubiquitous organism that affects humans and animals, with potential to contaminate the water and food, raising a concern in public health interest due to its zoonotic risk. In order to estimate the parasitic pressure for the both animal and human health, it was evaluated the prevalence of Giardia infection in pets (owned dogs and cats) originated from the urban area of Bucharest. Therefore, within 4 months (May-August, 2016), a total number of 188 faecal samples from dogs and 79 fecal samples from cats were investigated. Animals were of different breeds or mixed and different ages (from 1 month up to 16 years for cats, and up to 18 years, for dogs, respectively). Faecal samples were processed by zinc sulphate 33% solution flotation, Lügol stained and microscopically examined for identification of Giardia cysts. Additionally, other parasitic stages (oocysts, eggs) were also registered. Overall, out of the total faecal samples of dogs and cats, 41.49% (95%CI: 34.36-48.89), and 34.18% (95% CI: 23.87-45.71), respectively, were positive for parasite infections. Giardia cysts were recorded in quite similar prevalence in dogs, of 21.28% (40/188) and cats, of 22.78% (18/79). A higher prevalence of Giardia infection was found in puppies (23.89%) and older dogs (30.00%), and kittens (26.42%), respectively, compared to the adults (15.38% in dogs and 14.29% in cats). Additional, other parasite infections were found, as follows: in dogs, Isospora spp. (12.23%), Ancylostoma caninum (5.85%), Toxocara canis (4.26%), Uncinaria stenocephala (0.53%), Toxascaris leonina (0.53%) and Dipylidium caninum (0.53%); while in cats, Toxocara cati (10.13%) and Isospora spp. (8.86%) infections were registered. The findings of the present study are of relevance for the both animal and public health, emphasizing potential high risks for parasite infection, including parasites with zoonotic potential.

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Introduction. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult stem cells (Pittenger et al., 1999, Zhang et al., 2009) able of self-renewal, with low immunogenicity and immunoregulatory property (Jorgensen et al, 2003, English et al., 2008, Zhang et al., 2009). Dendritic cells (DCs) present in the bone marrow play a crucial role in the instruction of adaptive immunity (Nauta et al., 2006, Zhi-Gang et al., 2012) DC have the unique capacity to stimulate naive and memory T cells (Banchereau et al., 2000, Nauta et al., 2006, Wang et al., 2013). The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of MSCs on DC maturation. Materials and Methods. MSCs were collected from femurs of male Wistar rats. Cells suspension were cultured in DMEM/F12 supplimented with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS), 5% horse serum and 1% antibiotic– antimycotic (Gibco). DCs were prepared from rat bone marrow after red cells lysis and cultured in RPMI 1640 medium (Gibco) supplemented with 10% FCS, 1% antibiotic–antimycotic (Gibco), 10 ng/mL GM-CSF (Sigma), and 5 ng/mL IL-4 (Sigma). MSCs and DCs were cultured for 7d at 37°C. DCs (5x105) were grown in two different conditions: co-culturing with MSCs and 25 ng/ml TNF (I) or without MSCs and 25 ng/ml TNF (Sigma) (II) for 48d. Cell phenotype were characterized by flow cytometry (FACSCanto II) using CD11b, CD44, CD86 (Becton Dickinson) antibodies. Results and Conclusion. After co-culture with MSCs, DC showed a decrease in CD86 expression compared with culture supplemented only with TNF which showed an increase in expression of this marker. Acknowledgements-This work was supported by Forerunner Federation

Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXIV, Issue 1
Written by Georgi STOIMENOV, Gabriela GOUJGОULOVA, Georgi GEORGIEV, Chavdar FILIPOV, Roman PEPOVICH, Kalin HRISTOV, Branimir NIKOLOV

The aim of our study was to assess the possibility of serological tests for a detection of antibodies against Influenza A virus in wild migratory, zoo birds and alive birds, presented on markets. The samples were collected in Bulgaria during the epizootic in 2015. Totally 209 specimens have been tested, of which 179 only by ELISA and 30 both by ELISA and HI assay. Some differences during the testing of two yolk sacs of eggs, from the found death Dalmatian pelicans, have been demonstrated, where ELISA and AGID were negative, but HI was positive; the following VNR found them to bepartially positive. A possible explanation for the observed contradiction could be given by the specific haemagglutinin, located on the surface of viral particle. The obtained positive serum samples of wild birds from Sofia Zoo and those from a market for alive birds have shown that, the supervision of Avian influenza should not be focused only on the migratory birds, because the disease can be introduced by an import of exotic birds and their offer through auctions and markets.

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