PRINT ISSN 1222-5304, ISSN-L: 2065-1295, ISSN CD: 2343-9394,ISSN ONLINE 2067-3663
 

Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXIV, Issue 1
Written by Nicolae Tiberiu CONSTANTIN, Alexandru ȘONEA

After the voluntary waiting period, a chronic uterine infection or a persistent inflammation in the cow may be associated with disruption of the architecture of the endometrial layer and glandular hypersecretion. The aim of our work, the first of this kind in Romania, was to evaluate the efficacy of 3% N-acetylcysteine (NAC) against the clinical endometritis. The mucolytic effect of NAC can be use to break up mucus produced by an glandular irritated layer. Besides this, NAC has a antioxidant, cytoprotection and antiinflamatory role, and at a 8% concentration it can be bactericidal. This study was carried out between 2016-2017 on 43 cows with clinical signs of endometritis after 50-60 days postpartum from a dairy farm situated in Ploiești county. The clinical endometritis was diagnosed by evalution of uterine discharge detected in the vulva. Cows were randomly splited to NAC treatment (NAC) and non-NAC treatment (nNAC) groups. All of these were clinically evaluated, and a cervical swab for microbiology laboratory was collected. The NAC group (n=21) received an intrauterine treatment of enrofloxacin+oxitetraciclin+iodoform (2.5g+5g+5g/100ml) in 20 ml dosages. After 12 hours, an infusion of 3% NAC was intrauterine administred for 3 days. The nNAC group received 20 ml of saline, for 3 days instead of 3% NAC and the same quantity of enrofloxacin+oxitetraciclin+iodoform solution. The clinical heal rate was definited as the percentage of females with no signs of clinical endometritis (clear mucus at the vaginoscopy), at the examination in first estrus following treatment. Cows were artificially inseminated following the hormonal therapy. As a main conclusion, the group of cows treated with NAC presented a pregnancy rate of 66.7% in contrast with non NAC group, where the pregnancy rate was 54.6%.

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Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXI
Written by Tahir BAYRIL, Orhan YILMAZ

This study aimed to determine the effects of sire selection on survival rate of calf, milk yield and reproductive parameters in high-yield dairy heifers. In the study, milk yield and reproduction parameters of 293 Holstein heifers from 7 bulls were determined. It was obtained that the first insemination age was higher in the daughter of number 1 bull. This statistical difference outcame from the daughter of number 1 bull (P<0.05). When calved age was determined, the daughter of the number 1 bull were higher than those of 2, 5 and 7 bulls (P<0.05). There was no effect of sire on the conception length of heifers, however there was significant effect of sire on live weights of hiefer during insemination period (P<0.05). The effect of bull on birth weight of calves was significant (P<0.05). Birth weights of calves were highest in the daughters of number 2 and 7 bulls, were lowest in the daughters of number 1 and 5 bulls. The effect of sire on lactation milk yield, lactation length and lactaion peak duration of the daughter were not significant, however was significant on peak yield (P<0.05). The birth type was significant on survival rate of calves. Survival rate of single born was 3.5 time higher than twins. In conclusion, the selection of bulls was found effective on reproductive parameters and birth weights of calves, however was ineffective on the lactation milk yield, lactation length and lactation peak duration except peak milk yield.

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Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXIII, Issue 1
Written by Adrian RĂDUȚĂ, Dumitru CURCĂ

Selenium is an essential trace mineral that prevents the formation of pro oxidative free radicals. The role the selenium plays in the protection of hemoglobin against peroxidation is very well documented and researched. In order to perform this study, a number of 20 3-weeks-old broiler chickens of the Cobb breed were analyzed. The individuals were distributed into two even lots. The batching of the individuals was realized within the bio base of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine in Bucharest. The duration of the experiment was of 4 weeks. Both the experimental batch and the control batch were fed a 21/1 ratio feed diet for broiler chicken, finishing period. The experimental batch’s diet was additionally supplemented with 0.5 ppm of selenium, with 0.25 ALKOSEL R397 g/kg mixed fodder. At the end of the experimental period, blood samples were taken by venipuncture of the cubital vein for hematological and biochemical laboratory analysis. The results were tabled and bio statistically interpreted. The experimental lot has shown significant increases in the values of the hematocrit (7.68%) and of the blood levels of white blood cells (14.01%), aspartate aminotransferase (8.19%), calcium (10.59%) and selenium (42.56%). They also showed a significant decrease in the values of blood protein levels (8.33%). The biochemical parameters influenced by the organic selenium supplemented feed lead to the prevention of the oxidative stress and a higher efficiency of fodder conversion rate.

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Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXI
Written by Ioana DUMITRU, Cristian DEZDROBITU, Alexandru GUDEA, Irina IRIMESCU, Cristian MARTONOS, Bianca MATOSZ, Florin SILAGHI, Aurel DAMIAN

Conservation of animal skeletons is necessary for various reasons - often to determine the species or as decorative items, but we are interested in terms of their use as teaching materials. Students can achieve artistic projects using bones; they can learn species identification and deducing elements of the animal’s life by measuring bones. Applying the techniques of obtaining a skeleton can be an enriching experience in the educational process of any student. The aim of this study was to obtain two complete rabbit skeletons and to asses the efficiency of the whitening and the degreasing substances. The materials used were: two rabbit cadavers, dissection instruments, insect colony, hydrogen peroxide, sodium bicarbonate, acetic acid, acetone, gasoline, wooden bases, support wires and silicone gun. To obtain the skeletons we have used the technique of maceration with the help of insects, with a previous dissection of the carcasses. In both cases, the maceration process took 7 day to complete for the body and, 5 day for the cranium, respectively. The osseous pieces thus obtained were frozen at -180 C to eliminates the remaining insects. The skeletons have then undergone a 24 hours whitening process using hydrogen peroxide and sodium bicarbonate, respectively, followed by 24 hours of drying at room temperature, and by 24 hours degreasing using acetone and gasoline. The processing was completed by a final drying period and the assembly on the mounts. In conclusion we can mention the fact that the process of skeleton preservation is scrupulous, time-consuming, but it yields satisfying results in terms of anatomic characteristics maintenance and didactic usability.

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Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXI
Written by Aurel MUSTE, Marius MUSTE, Ionel PAPUC, Andrei TANASE, Iulian ILIE, Teodor STROE, Florin BETEG

Medium otitis is the result of an inflammatory process. Osteotomy of the tympanic bubble can be recommended with very good results in the extension of inflammatory processes with a chronic character in osteitis or neoplastic processes at this level. Actually more efficient is doing lateral osteotomy in the case of dogs if we take into consideration the anatomical particularities. The observations were made on 5 dogs, of ages between 6-9 years, diagnosed trough clinical examination and complementary examination methods like neurological examination and X ray examination, that suffered from chronic suppurative otitis media. The surgical approach is done on the lateral side, over the external auditory canal, to the horizontal part of it, dilacerations of the auditory canal until cranial level, where we make an incision on the canal so that we can perform the osteotomy of the bubble. The osteotomy of the bubble was done using an adequate milling machine specially made for this purpose. The compromised (necrotic) bone part was removed in 2 cases in a proportion of 50%. In all cases the cavity of the bubble was cleaned with betadine solution with a concentration of 1‰. After 14-21 days after surgery the evolution was good.

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Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXIII, Issue 2
Written by Hasan Majid H. HASAN, Doina DANES

The paper aimed to present the available vaccines for E.coli in chicken and discuss the immune response induced by E.coli. It is based on statistical data provided by already published articles and data interpreted from specialised journals. Avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) represents the most economically significant disease which has a negative impact on the industry of broilers. In many countries, a common practice during the last decades has been to administer antibiotics in order to suppress infection with APEC, but lately market pressures, by trade and statutory restraints, have limited the use of antibiotics and this has led to the development of specially designed E.coli vaccines, to stimulate an immune response against pathogenic E. coli, besides vaccination against primary respiratory and immuno-suppressive pathogens. Chickens display different mechanisms to protect against and to combat pathogenic infection. Typically APEC is inhaled or ingested, by crossing the mucosal barrier; it cannot penetrate the skin, which generally acts as a protective element. In broilers, the source of infection are, usually, the contaminated drinking water or the inhaled dust, laden with APEC. Antimicrobial drugs remain an important tool in reducing of incidence as of mortality, associated with this disease, but a vaccine-based approach for the disease control remains highly desirable, which is why the focus of this paper will be to analyze and criticize each available type of E.coli vaccine, including the advantages and disadvantages of each, in terms of preparation, efficiency, costs and other important factors. The latest developments in molecular biology have created new vaccine strains effective against APEC, like the modified gene-deleted vaccines which stimulate both, tissue (cellular) associated immunity and humoral (circulating antibody) immunity. The first commercial E. coli vaccine for chickens was licensed by the US Department of Agriculture in 2006, so this paper will also try to focus on the newest research, directed after this year.

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Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXI
Written by Ovidiu SAVU, Alexandra OPRESCU, Manuella MILITARU

This paper aims to present the prevention and control of the bacteria from the Salmonella spp. genus in an intensive farm type, with growing ground technology for laying hens. The work is based on studies made at the farm S.C. Avicola Găeşti S.R.L. The bacterias belonging to the Salmonella genus cause various symptoms, from asymptomatic to "typhoid-like" syndromes in children or animals with high susceptibility. In adults Salmonella spp. are mostly responsible for food-borne diseases. For this reason salmonellosis are considered specific zoonoses. The World Health Organization (WHO) considers salmonellosis as one of the most important diseases caused by consumption of contaminated food. Regarding the species, Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteridis are incriminated as the most important causes of food-borne diseases with serious risks in terms of human health. The basic characteristic of Salmonella contamination is that there are no organoleptic changes in order to draw the attention at the possible presence of germs, the eggs have the appearance color, smell and taste unchanged. In this study was used the official RENAR method, more specific the Horizontal method for the detection of bacteria of the Salmonella spp. genus for food offered for public consumption - SR EN ISO 6579: 2003 / AC 2009. Measurements were done for both shell and egg contents, loads being formed of 10 consumption eggs A category, Class L (63-73 g). The results revealed no bacteria of the Salmonella spp. genus regarding both determinations carried out on the shell as well as those that incurred the content (Absent / 25 g shell Absent / 25 g content). Therefore, the compliance of biosecurity measures in farm, bacteriological control of feed, manure and eggs are fundamental requirements in preventing the occurrence of bacteria of the Salmonella spp. genus which may jeopardize the safety and wholesomeness of the products obtained in the poultry sector.

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Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXI
Written by Ana-Maria COMAN, Emilia BALINT, Nicolae MANOLESCU

The authors present a work which combines harmonious the fundamental theoretical aspects of normal and pathological lymph node cytology to sheep and horse, with practical aspects frequently seen in slaughterhouse. Thus, we reveals the relation between some diseases with chronic evolution who generate hyper-antigenic reaction bood (like major parasitic diseases: fasciolosis, dicroceliosis, echinococcosis, trichinosis) and the cytomorphological lymph node changes. It present the normal aspects of limph nodes cytology comparated with the changes that arise from acute inflammation, repetitive chronic inflammation (who generating hyper-antigenic reaction) and malignant lymphoma "vera" , capturing the state of "malignant prelimfom" too, and we called „BORDER STATES”.

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Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXI
Written by Aurel MUSTE, Marius MUSTE, Laura SCURTU, Andrei TĂNASE, Iulian ILIE, Loredana HODIS, Florin BETEG

Joint disease (osteoarthritis) is frequently encountered, with consequence over the health status of the animal. During the evolution of the disease there are present many inflammatory factors including interleukins, prostaglandins and metalloproteinases. In time, the activity of the patience is limited, the performance is reduced and the sclerosis of the subchondral bone appears, the inflammation of the synovial membrane and periarticular osteophytes. Concerning this status and effects, in our protocol we tried to appreciate the efficiency of ultrasounds in these inflammatory states. The observations were made on 15 dogs of different breeds, ages and sexes that presented osteoarthritis at the knee level of the hind limb. The parameters studied were the grade of the limping, the pain evaluation score, the degrees of mobility of the joint, etc. At the dogs studied, the protocol followed a intensity of 0,5w/cm², administered trough waves during 10 minutes/surface following a schedule of one session per day, five days in a row, followed by two days break and another five day treatment. To evaluate the efficiency of the ultrasounds, measurements of the joint mobility were made, by measuring the opening angle of the joint, the evolution of the limp and the evolution of the pain. Good results were observed after 3 months from the application of the procedures.

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Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXIII, Issue 2
Written by Alina NĂSĂLEAN, Emöke PALL, Andreea BUTA, Ştefana BÂLICI, Horea MATEI, Laurenţiu OGNEAN

The goat milk composition can be distinguished by significant proportions of biologically active proteins that can exert antimicrobial effects. In this context, the present work is focused on evaluating antimicrobial activity of total caseins in vitro, extracted from goat milk, concerning some reference bacterial strains such as Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) and Staphylococcus aureus. The research was conducted on milk samples collected from two groups of clinically healthy goats, Carpathian (group I, n = 12) and Alpine (group II, n = 12) breeds. Milk samples were subjected to a procedure of total casein separation. In vitro test procedure consisted in evaluating the inhibitory effect of casein on the microbial strains listed, using the serial micro-dilution method in liquid broth, which led to the establishment of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), correlated with diffusion method. Thus, the concentrations tested were 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg casein / mL, and the interpretation was based on the measurement of the inhibition zones diameters. Our results indicate antimicrobial activity with variations dependent on the bacterial strain tested with no significant differences between the two goat breeds. Thereby, E. coli strain was proven to be very sensitive to all concentrations used, P. aeruginosa at the 20, 30 and 40 mg/mL concentrations, and the St. aureus to 30 and 40 mg casein/mL concentrations. Our results reveal the antimicrobial potential of milk proteins, analysing it in the current context of developing microbial resistance to antibiotics. In conclusion, caseins may be an alternative solution to diminish the consequences of the antibiotic resistance phenomenon, giving some dairy products the character of functional foods.

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