PRINT ISSN 1222-5304, ISSN-L: 2065-1295, ISSN CD: 2343-9394,ISSN ONLINE 2067-3663
 

Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. 19 ISSUE 4
Written by Eugenia SOVAREL, A.T. BOGDAN, Paula POSAN, Iudith IPATE, Nicoleta ISFAN

Using horses for sport requires preparation and optimization of physical and mental qualities, both contributing to achieving the desired performance.Energy metabolism in sport horses, is strongly influenced by the intensity and duration of exercise required by a particular competition Thus, in short duration and high intensity efforts, most of the chemical energy needed for muscle contraction is supplied by lactic anaerobic metabolism. Following use of this metabolic pathway, lactic acid byproduct, whose accumulation, initially in muscle, then blood, lead to disruption of pH and alkaline reserve. Biological material, which is the subject of research, belongs to Sport Club Dinamo-Bucharest, but comes from Jeg

Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXIV, Issue 2
Written by Alina ȘTEFĂNESCU, Bogdan Alexandru VIȚĂLARU

Central venous catheter associated infections are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Lockings with antibiotics associated with heparin are used for both prophylaxis of infections and central venous catheter longevity. The present study was conducted on 20 dogs treated in the Hemodialysis Clinic from the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Bucharest. 10 dogs received a locking with 2500 IU/ml heparin combined with vancomycin 2.5 mg/ml and 10 had locking with 5000 IU/ml heparin. Locking solutions were maintained for 24 hours in each patient. Local reactions were observed on the jugular vein, and the central venous catheter function was evaluated in each patient. Catheters were maintained at least 10 days. There were no local reactions in the batch with vancomycin and heparin locking. In the heparin locking batch, local reactions occurred in three subjects on the third day, and central venous catheter functioning progressively altered until day 10. Locking with heparin and vancomycin are an effective alternative, the catheter having a longer maintenance period. Combining an antibiotic with heparin provides superior results to prevent catheter-related infections.

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Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXIII, Issue 2
Written by Dragos COBZARIU, Stefan Iulian PICIORUS, Maria-Rodica GURAU, Doina DANES

Bluetongue is an insect-borne viral disease of ruminants produced by an Orbivirus. The first case of bluetongue in Romania was recorded on August the 23rd, 2014 in the South-Eastern county of Buzau, and in the coming years hundreds of new cases were documented. The purpose of the paper was the application of GIS methodologies to create a retrospective analysis of bluetongue outbreaks in Romanian cattle between 2014 and 2015. The GIS analysis used a tool for registering epidemiological data that was developed in Microsoft Office Excel 2013 with add-in Power Map. Addresses of individual animal cases were registered, and GPS coordinates were determined automatically by Power Map application for each village of interest. The same application generated GIS maps of bluetongue outbreaks. As a conclusion, results obtained using interactive GIS maps showed a relative improvement in the perception and understanding of the overall situation of Bluetongue throughout the country.

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Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXI
Written by Adela-Alexandra BALTATANU, Niculae TUDOR

In Veterinary Medicine, spondylosis is described as a non-inflammatory, degenerative disease of the peripheral region of the endplate, associated with new bone formation (osteophytes). The osteophytes vary from small spurs to bony bridges across the disc space, affecting one or more disc space. The ventral surface of the vertebral body usually is unaffected The aim of this paperwork was to determine the severity and the distribution of spondylosis deformans in the cat spine. There were examinated a number of 41 cats between January – September 2014, including 30 females and 11 males. From the 41 cats examined, 12 of them were pure breed: Blue russian 1 (female), Birmanese 8 (7 females and 1 male), Persian 3 (females) and 29 from mixed breeds (19 females and 10 males). Rx was performed in latero-lateral and dorso-ventral orthograde views. It was observed the presence of mild spondylosis in 23/41 (56.09%) cats, moderate spondylosis in 10/41 (24.39%) cats and severe spondylosis in 8/41 (19.51%) cats, specifying that a number of 7/41 (17.07%) cats have two or all three types of spondylosis. Location was as follows: none in the cervical region, only thoracal region 10/41(24.39%), only lumbar region 6/41 (14.63%) cats, only thoraco-lumbar region 16/41 (39.02%) cats, only lumbo-sacral region 6/41 (14.63%) cats and on all three regions (thoracal, lumbar and sacral) a number of 3/41 (7.31%) cats. Rx results are suggesting that females are more likely than males to spondylosis and the most affected regions are the thoraco-lumbar, followed by the thoracal ones.

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Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXI
Written by Florentina BOCANETI, Oana TANASE, Constantin DARABAN, Elena VELESCU, Christine RADU

Group A rotaviruses (GARVs) cause acute diarrhea and malabsorption in new-born and young piglets, resulting in high mortality and morbidity. Evidence of this infection has been reported in various European countries. However, there is little evidence of porcine GARV infections in Romania. The aim of this study was the detection of the GARV in an outbreak of diarrhea in piglets and sows farmed in North-Eastern Romania. We examined 25 fecal samples: 20 diarrheic fecal specimens collected from piglets and 5 normal fecal samples collected from healthy sows raised in a closed-circuit farm. The extracted ARN underwent a reverse transcription step, followed by a classical polymerase chain reaction assay, using primers able to amplify a fragment of 317 bp from NSP5 gene, the most conservative gene among GARV strains and isolates. RT-PCR using specific primer for the GARV NSP5 gene detected GARV-positive reactions in 15 (60%) fecal samples. Of these, 12 out of 20 diarrheic fecal samples (60%) and 3 out of 5 fecal samples (60%) tested positive for porcine GARVs. The data showed that GARV was identified in the vast majority of both diarrheic and normal fecal samples, suggesting that the GARV may represent a major pathogen with an important role in this diarrhea outbreak. Thus, this RT-PCR assay proved to be a rapid and precise diagnosis assay for detection of porcine GARV. Furthermore, the primers annealing temperature (60 0C) is able to confer to this assay an increased specificity and sensitivity. In order to prevent the economical loses, the use of a reliable diagnosis method allowing the detection of rotavirus could contribute in achieving this goal, together with the identification and removal of the asymptomatic carriers.

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Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXI
Written by Marius DAN, Stelian BARAITAREANU, Doina DANES

Two distinct Calicivirus infections in lagomorphs have been described: rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) and European brown hare syndrome (EBHS). From their first report, in the 1980s, and until now several European countries have been reported outbreaks of both diseases. Due to high economic and ecologic impact on rabbit breeding and wildlife, RHD and EBHS have been included on the list of notified diseases to OIE by Member Countries. RHD is a highly contagious and acute fatal disease of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), while EBHS is a disease with similar pattern but described only in hares (Lepus europaeus). From 1980s, RHD occurred in almost all Europe, but EBHS only in Sweden, Italy, Belgium, Britain, Croatia, Finland, Austria, Spain, Poland, Switzerland and Slovakia. In this paper were analysed the risk factors of emergence for RHD and EBHS in Europe. The risk factors associated belong to three main determinants: (1) the virus; (2) the host, and (3) the environment. The main virus risk factor means to be the high resistance of RHD and EBHS viruses in the environment (at least 3 months). The highest host risk factor associated with the emergence or the re-emergence of both diseases is the size of susceptible rabbit/hare population (naive). Rabbit's environment risk factors for RHD/EBHS emergence or re-emergence mean to be the amount of infectious sources on the area: number of infected host animals, number of passive carriers: insects, rodents, birds and other animals (the viruses can spread by direct and indirect contact). Based on data before, we estimate the emergence/re-emergence of RHD and EBHS in European countries may occur if the receptive rabbit/hare population will grow into an area with poor surveillance/monitoring program of lagomorphs’ Caliciviruses and a high density of passive carriers.

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Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXIV, Issue 1
Written by Ruxandra-Anamaria OPREANU, Mario CODREANU

The aim of this article is to synthesize and systematize the risk factors in the appearance of feline hyperthyroidism presented in the literature. It is based on data and statistics extracted from numerous articles made all around the world. Data were processed and systematized based on the following factors: age, race, gender, robe color and fur length, diet, living environment, litter usage, and interaction with various chemicals. Thus, it is noteworthy that hyperthyroidism is more common in senior cats, living indoor, consuming predominantly wet food, and having contact with PBDE and PCB type substances, as well as the fact that cats from a "color point" breed are less likely to develop hyperthyroidism. Many factors have been identified that may favor the disease, but no determinant.

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Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXI
Written by Magda GONCIAROV, Cristin COMAN

Bluetongue affects domestic ruminants (sheep, goats, cattle) and wild (buffalo, deer, several species of African antelope and other species of the order Artiodactyla). In epidemiology of the disease, cattle have a particularly important role due to prolonged viremia, in the absence of clinical signs of disease, except infection with serotype 8 (BTV8) in Europe, according to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) data. The economic importance of the disease lies in economic losses consecutively reducing the productive capacity of the animals, mortality and fetal malformations, immunization costs for receptive animals, trade restrictions, reducing the selling price of animals of receptive species and products derived from them. According to the emergence and evolution of bluetongue outbreaks reported to OIE and recorded in WAHID (World Animal Health Information Database) from 1996 to September 2014 were registered worldwide more than 33.400 bluetongue outbreaks, over 28,300 outbreaks have been reported in Europe, more than 1,600 outbreaks in Africa, 3,500 outbreaks in Asia, six outbreaks in the Americas, including Central America and 4 outbreaks in Australia. Global warming is one of the possible reasons for which a change of the evolution of bluetongue in the Mediterranean region and is expected range of the vectors of the disease to spread north as global warming intensifies.

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Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. 19 ISSUE 4
Written by Letitia PURDOIU, Nicolae Alexandru POPESCU, Lucian IONITA, Cristina DINU-PÎRVU, Simona IVANA

The majority of the Listeria bacteria are targeted by the immune system before they are able to cause infection. The case fatality rate for those with a severe form of infection may approach 25% (Salmonella in comparison has a mortality rate estimated at less than 1%). The prevention of Listeria as a food illness involves effective sanitation of food contact surfaces. Alcohol has proven to be an effective topical sanitizer against Listeria. International Commission of Microbiology of foods (ICMSF) established that, if the bacteria does not exceed 100 microorganisms per gram at the time of comsumption, the food can be consumed by healthy individuals. For the safety and quality of the finished product is recommended (for) the application of a HACCP-type program or a control and evaluation scheme.

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Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXI
Written by Nicoleta Cristina HRISTEA, Stelian BARAITAREANU

The Ebola virus is one of the most virulent pathogen of humans. Until 2014 there have been reported 35 outbreaks, of which 25 in Africa, three in Asia (Philippines), three in America (USA) and four in Europe (Russia, UK, and Italy). Several outbreaks affected multiple countries. The most non-African human cases were accidentally produced in laboratories (researchers) and hospitals (medical staff). The largest outbreak of Ebola is still ongoing across West Africa (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone). Sporadic cases of illness and deaths have been reported outside of West Africa, in USA, Spain, UK, Nigeria, Senegal, and Mali. During February, 2014 - January 5, 2015were recorded 20,691cases of human illness and 8,168deaths (data are constantly evolving). The paper aims to present the epidemiologic characteristics of Ebola outbreaks that occurred from 1976 to 2014, in order to identify the source of infection and the route of transmission. The major source of Ebola virus infection identified in outbreaks with human casualties was the close unprotected physical contact with casualties. Another important source of human infection was wildlife. The natural reservoirs of Ebola virus are considered fruit bats (Hypsignathus monstrosus, Epomops franqueti,Myonycte ristorquata, Rousettus aegyptiacus) that spread the virus through urine and saliva. In two major human outbreaks with several casualties, (Zaire virus; Gabon; 1996-1997) the first sources of infection were chimpanzees. In seven outbreaks with asymptomatic human infections (Reston virus; Philippines, USA, Italy, 1989- 2008) were involved apes and pigs, but the source of animal infection weren’t identified. As a conclusion, the risk of Ebola virus disease spread outside of Africa is mainly associated with the international travel and the trade of live exotic animals. Ebola isn’t an airborne disease, but direct exposure (percutaneous or mucous membrane) of people to infected blood or body fluids leads to the rapid transmission of the virus.

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