PRINT ISSN 1222-5304, ISSN-L: 2065-1295, ISSN CD: 2343-9394,ISSN ONLINE 2067-3663
 

RISK FACTORS FOR THE EMERGENCE/RE-EMERGENCE OF LAGOMORPHS’ CALICIVIRUS INFECTIONS

Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXI
Written by Marius DAN, Stelian BARAITAREANU, Doina DANES

Two distinct Calicivirus infections in lagomorphs have been described: rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) and European brown hare syndrome (EBHS). From their first report, in the 1980s, and until now several European countries have been reported outbreaks of both diseases. Due to high economic and ecologic impact on rabbit breeding and wildlife, RHD and EBHS have been included on the list of notified diseases to OIE by Member Countries. RHD is a highly contagious and acute fatal disease of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), while EBHS is a disease with similar pattern but described only in hares (Lepus europaeus). From 1980s, RHD occurred in almost all Europe, but EBHS only in Sweden, Italy, Belgium, Britain, Croatia, Finland, Austria, Spain, Poland, Switzerland and Slovakia. In this paper were analysed the risk factors of emergence for RHD and EBHS in Europe. The risk factors associated belong to three main determinants: (1) the virus; (2) the host, and (3) the environment. The main virus risk factor means to be the high resistance of RHD and EBHS viruses in the environment (at least 3 months). The highest host risk factor associated with the emergence or the re-emergence of both diseases is the size of susceptible rabbit/hare population (naive). Rabbit's environment risk factors for RHD/EBHS emergence or re-emergence mean to be the amount of infectious sources on the area: number of infected host animals, number of passive carriers: insects, rodents, birds and other animals (the viruses can spread by direct and indirect contact). Based on data before, we estimate the emergence/re-emergence of RHD and EBHS in European countries may occur if the receptive rabbit/hare population will grow into an area with poor surveillance/monitoring program of lagomorphs’ Caliciviruses and a high density of passive carriers.

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