COMPARATIVE MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF ORAL CAVITY IN RABBITS AND GUINEA PIGS

Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LX (1)
Written by Florin STAN

In recent years, the species belonging to the order Lagomorpha and Rodentia are commonly used both as pets and in biomedical research, including in studies related to the digestive tract. The aim of this study was to perform a detailed anatomical description of the oral cavity of the two species. Due to their size and anatomical conformation is often difficult to make a proper examination of the oral cavity. Dissection was performed on 10 rabbits and 10 Guinea pigs of different sexes and ages. A very important and also quite confusing aspect is related to the dentition (some authors claim that the rabbits are monofyodont). Both species shows aradicular hypsodont dentition, (consisting of a short exposed crown and a long reserve crown with open root), elodont type (continuous growth throughout life). Rabbits are dyphyodont; they have deciduous and permanent sets of teeth compared to Guinea pigs that are monophyodont with a single set of permanent teeth without deciduous precursors. Both species share the same pattern of anisognathism, more pronounced in Guinea pigs, with the maxillary dental arch being wider than the mandibular dental arch. A large diastema separates the incisor and the cheek teeth in each jaw quadrant, being wider in guinea pigs compared to rabbits. Rabbits have one pair of mandibular incisors and two pairs of maxillary incisors with unpigmented enamel, two mandibular and three maxillary premolars and three molar teeth on each side in both the mandible and the maxilla. Guinea pigs have one pair of incisors, one pair of premolars and three pairs of molars on each dental arch. Contrary to rabbits, in Guinea pigs the mandibles (including premolar and molar teeth) are spaced further apart than the maxillae. The masseter muscle is well developed in both species. The temporomandibular joint in Guinea pigs does not subluxate in lateral movement, but allows a large degree of rostrocaudal movement. In rabbits the temporomandibular joint enables large lateral movement and low rostrocaudal movement. This morphological description helps both the clinicians and the researchers, being necessary for a proper understanding of the pathology of oral cavity in rabbits and Guinea pigs.

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Stan F. 2014, COMPARATIVE MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF ORAL CAVITY IN RABBITS AND GUINEA PIGS. Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LX (1), ISSN 2065-1295, 27-32.


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