PRINT ISSN 1222-5304, ISSN-L: 2065-1295, ISSN CD: 2343-9394,ISSN ONLINE 2067-3663
 

CEREBRAL EDEMA/OEDEMA

Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. 19 ISSUE 4
Written by Cristina FERNOAGA, Mario CODREANU, Mihai CORNILA

Intracranial pathology in dogs is often associated with brain edema. Following acute injury, brain edema reaches it’s maximal peak between 24 to 48 hours and may persist for a week or more. Brain edema has been categorized as vasogenic, cytotoxic, or interstitial based on cause and anatomic areas of involvement. Any or all of these types of edema may be present in an animal with brain disease. By definition cerebral edema is the excess accumulation of fluid in the intra-and/or extracellular spaces of the brain. Cytotoxic edema occurs as a consequence of / pump disfunction, resulting in neuronal distress. The volume of intracellular fluid increases and cells begin to swell. This edema oftenly occurs due to disease processes such as toxicity, ischemia, or hypoxia. Interstitial edema is defined as increased fluid content in the periventricular white matter as a result of CSF movement across the ventricular walls in instances of hydrocephalus. Periventricular white matter is reduced as a consequence of the myelin lipids dissapearance secondary to an increase in hydrostatic pressure or decrease in periventricular blood flow of the white matter . Vasogenic edema is the most common form of edema associated with CNS neoplasia. These abnormalities allow fluid to move from the vascular to the perivascular spaces. Deep white matter of the involved cerebral hemisphere is preferentially affected. The “ideal” drug in treating cerebral edema, focused on mobilizing and/or preventing fluid accumulation in the brain, with a rapid onset, prolonged action and minimal side effects, is yet to be discovered.

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