Scientific Works Series C. Veterinary Medicine

PRINT ISSN 1222-5304, ISSN-L: 2065-1295, ISSN CD: 2343-9394,ISSN ONLINE 2067-3663
 

CLINICAL-DIAGNOSIS COORDINATES IN ETHYLENE GLYCOL INTOXICATION IN A CAT. CASE STUDY

Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LXIV, Issue 1
Written by Alexandra Mihaela POPA, Ana-Maria GOANȚĂ, Cristina FERNOAGĂ , Lucian IONIȚĂ, Mario CODREANU

The aim of this study is to underline the significance of ethylene glycol poisoning as a differential diagnosis in young outdoor cats presented with sudden onset of lethargy in the absence of other clinical signs whose state continues to degrade over a few hours. Ethylene glycol intoxication is more common in dogs than in cats, as they are more tempted by its sweet taste. Cats are more frequently intoxicated through cutaneous absorption and grooming and have a lower minimum toxic dose. Clinical signs include polyuria, hyporeflexia and ataxia, that progress to depression, stupor and hypothermia and signs of acute kidney failure. A 9 months-old male intact cat presented in a precomatose state in our clinic. The anamnesis indicated that it was an indoor-outdoor cat with no medical history which had been been away from home for a few hours. Clinically, it presented with inappetence and lethargy. The physical examination revealed a precomatose state with hypothermia (36.8°C), dehydration, cyanotic mucous membranes, uremic halitosis, mydriasis and an absent pupillary light reflex. Blood biochemistry revealed a blood urea nitrogen of 75 mg/dL and a creatinine of 11.8 mg/dL. Repeated blood glucose measurements revealed oscilations between hypo- and hyperglycemia despite therapeutical interventions. The ultrasonographic examination showed kidney lesions suggestive of ethylene glycol toxicity. The microscopic examination of the urinary sediment revealed calcium oxalate crystals. Based on the paraclinical evidence, we suspected an intoxication with antifreeze such as ethylene glycol. The cat was treated specifically and rehydrated, but after 48 hours the its clinical state had worsened and the decision was made to put the cat to sleep. Even though the incidence is lower in cats, ethylene glycol toxicity should be added to the list of differential diagnoses in cats, in particular during the cold season when antifreeze is more commonly used and mostly when the symptomatology is suggestive of an acute intoxication.

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