Scientific Works Series C. Veterinary Medicine

PRINT ISSN 2065-1295, ISSN-L: 2065-1295, ISSN CD: 2343-9394,ISSN ONLINE 2067-3663


Published in Scientific Works. Series C. Veterinary Medicine, Vol. LX (1)
Written by Stelian BĂRĂITĂREANU, Doina DANEȘ

Emergence of “novel” infectious agents with or without zoonotic potential continues to occur in livestock. Such events have many causes, some natural and a lot off are associate with human interference upon microorganisms or their environment. Animal world is hosting many more pathogens than those who are subject of current surveillance and/or diagnostic: some of them are endemic in limited ecosystems, and are usually defined as exotic pathogens by European countries (e.g., Hendra virus, Nipah virus, Akabane virus); others are not associated with collective or individual known pathology in them natural hosts (asymptomatic carriers) but can produce or can be involved in diseases of other domestic animals or humans (e.g. Hanta virus, Crimea-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus), or are just new discovered pathogens (e.g., Schmallenberg virus). It is difficult to accomplish, but it would be highly useful to investigate if these organisms, introduced in different populations other than the originating one, could generate pathology. Would be useful to map the distribution of these newly discovered agents whose potential pathogen is still unevaluated or even appear devoid of pathogenicity, to estimate their emerging potential in the case of contact with unusual hosts. The large number of pathogens, which are not subject to official notification, makes difficult their active surveillance by specific laboratory testing methods; the cost-effectiveness of active surveillance systems could not be accepted for the animal disease surveillance and the prompt reporting. However, the passive surveillance and the risk analysis (exposure assessment and risk characterization) can be perform using conventional or participatory epidemiology if the specialist or farmers are trained to identify the pathology that can be produced by these new pathogens. The aim of this review was to describe the main clinic pathological features generated in livestock by “novel” infectious agents: Schmallenberg virus, Hendra virus, Menangle virus, Nipah virus and Usutu virus. In our opinion, once emerged a new microorganism it is advisable to make investigation in similar ecosystems to check his presence.

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